Estrogen and Progestin-Uses-side effects-dosage-interactions
What is the purpose of this medication?
To avoid pregnancy, oral contraceptives (birth control tablets) are utilised. Female sex hormones are oestrogen and progestin. Oestrogen and progestin combinations function by inhibiting ovulation (the release of eggs from the ovaries). They also alter the uterine (womb) lining to prevent conception and alter the mucus at the cervix (uterine entrance) to prevent sperm (male reproductive cells) from entering. Oral contraceptives are a very successful means of birth control, but they do not prevent the transmission of HIV (the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]) and other sexually transmitted infections.
Some oral contraceptive brands are also used to treat acne in some people. Oral contraceptives cure acne by lowering the levels of some naturally occurring chemicals that might cause acne.
Some oral contraceptives (Beyaz, Yaz) are also used to treat premenstrual dysphoric disorder (physical and emotional symptoms that occur before to menstruation each month) in women who have opted to take an oral contraceptive to avoid conception.
Estrogen and Progestin-Uses-side effects-dosage-interactions
How should this medication be administered?
Oral contraceptives are sold in packs of 21, 28, or 91 pills to be taken orally once a day, every day, or almost every day in a normal cycle. Take oral contraceptives with meals or milk to avoid nausea. Every day, take your oral contraceptive at the same time. Follow the instructions on your prescription label exactly, and ask your doctor or chemist to explain any parts you don’t understand. Follow the directions on your oral contraceptive precisely. Do not take more or less of it, or take it more frequently or for a longer period of time than your doctor has advised.
Oral contraceptives are available in a variety of brands. Oral contraceptive brands include somewhat different drugs or dosages, are administered in slightly different methods, and have varying risks and benefits. Make sure you know whatever brand of oral contraceptives you’re using and how to use it correctly. Request a copy of the manufacturer’s information for the patient from your doctor or chemist, and carefully study it.
Take 1 tablet everyday for 21 days and then none for 7 days if you have a 21-tablet packet. Then begin a fresh packet.
If you have a 28-tablet packet, take one tablet every day for 28 days in a row, in the sequence given in your packet. Begin a new packet the day following your 28th tablet. Most 28-tablet packages contain tablets of varying colours. Many 28-tablet packs have particular colour tablets that carry varying levels of oestrogen and progestin, although they may also contain an inert component or a folate supplement.
Take 1 tablet everyday for 91 days if you have a 91-day tablet package. Your package will include three trays of pills. Begin with the first tablet on the first tray and continue taking one tablet each day in the sequence given on the packet until all of the tablets on all of the trays have been consumed. The final group of pills is a different colour. These pills might have an inert component or a very low quantity of oestrogen. Begin your fresh packet the day after your 91st pill.
When you should begin taking your oral contraceptive, your doctor will advise you. Oral contraceptives are often initiated on the first or fifth day of your menstrual cycle, or on the first Sunday after or on which bleeding begins. Your doctor will also advise you on whether you need to use another form of birth control during the first 7 to 9 days of taking your oral contraceptive and will assist you in selecting one. Follow these instructions exactly.
You may most likely suffer menstrual-like withdrawal bleeding when taking the inactive pills or low dosage oestrogen tablets, or during the week you do not take your oral contraceptive. If you take the sort of package that just includes active pills, you will not have any planned bleeding, but you may have unexpected bleeding and spotting, especially at the start of your treatment. Even if you are still bleeding, start taking your fresh packet on time.
If you vomit or have diarrhoea while using an oral contraceptive, you may need to use a backup form of birth control. Discuss this with your doctor before starting your oral contraceptive so that you may prepare a backup method of birth control in case it is required. If you vomit or have diarrhoea while using an oral contraceptive, contact your doctor to determine how long you should continue using the backup method.
If you have recently given birth, you should wait 4 weeks before starting oral contraception. If you have had an abortion or miscarriage, see your doctor about when you should start using oral contraception.
Oral contraceptives are only effective if used on a regular basis. Continue to use oral contraceptives on a daily basis, even if you are spotting or bleeding, have an upset stomach, or do not believe you are pregnant. Do not discontinue oral contraceptives without first consulting your doctor.
Other use for this medication
Oral contraceptives are also occasionally used to treat heavy or irregular periods and endometriosis (a condition in which the sort of tissue that lines the uterus [womb] develops in other places of the body, causing discomfort, heavy or irregular periods, and other symptoms). Discuss the risks of using this medicine for your illness with your doctor.
This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
What further measures should I take?
Before beginning oral contraception,
If you are allergic to oestrogen, progestin, or any other drug, notify your doctor and chemist.
Inform your doctor and chemist about any prescription and over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, or nutritional supplements you are taking. Be sure to mention any of the following: acetaminophen (APAP, Tylenol); antibiotics such as ampicillin (Principen), clarithromycin (Biaxin),erythromycin (E.E.S., E-Mycin, Erythrocin), isoniazid (INH, Nydrazid), metronidazole (Flagyl),minocycline (Dynacin, Minocin), rifabutin (Mycobutin), rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane), tetracycline (Sumycin), and troleandomycin (TAO) (not available in the U.S.); anticoagulants (‘blood thinners’) such as warfarin (Coumadin); antifungals such as griseofulvin (Fulvicin, Grifulvin, Grisactin), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), and ketoconazole (Nizoral); atorvastatin (Lipitor); clofibrate (Atromid-S); cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune); bosentan (Tracleer); cimetidine (Tagamet); danazol (Danocrine); delavirdine (Rescriptor); diltiazem (Cardizem, Dilacor, Tiazac); fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, in Symbyax); HIV protease inhibitors such as indinavir (Crixivan) and ritonavir (Norvir); medications for seizures such as carbamazepine (Tegretol), felbamate (Felbatol), lamotrigine (Lamictal), oxcarbazepine (Trileptal), phenobarbital (Luminal, Solfoton), phenytoin (Dilantin), primidone (Mysoline), and topiramate (Topamax); modafinil (Provigil); morphine (Kadian, MS Contin, MSIR, others); nefazodone; rifampin (Rimactane, in Rifadin, in Rifater); oral steroids such as dexamethasone (Decadron, Dexone), methylprednisolone (Medrol), prednisone (Deltasone), and prednisolone (Prelone); temazepam (Restoril); theophylline (Theobid, Theo-Dur); thyroid medication such as levothyroxine (Levothroid, Levoxyl, Synthroid); verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan); vitamin C; and zafirlukast (Accolate). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
if you are taking oral contraceptives that contain drosperinone (Beyaz, Gianvi, Loryna, Ocella, Safyral, Syeda, Yasmin, Yaz, and Zarah) tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are taking any of the medications listed above or any of the following: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors such as benazepril (Lotensin), enalapril (Vasotec), and lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril); angiotensin II antagonists such as irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), and valsartan (Diovan); aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn); diuretics (‘water pills’) such as amiloride (Midamor), spironolactone (Aldactone), and triamterene (Dyrenium); eplerenone (Inspra); heparin; or potassium supplements. Before taking Beyaz or Safyral, also tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking cholestyramine (Locholest, Prevalite, Questran), a folate supplement, methotrexate (Trexall), pyrimethamine (Daraprim), sulfasalazine (Azulfidine), or valproic acid (Depakene, Stavzor).
READ MORE: Oral-Contraceptives-Uses-side effects-dosage-interactions and Reviews
Inform your doctor about any herbal supplements you are taking, particularly St. John’s wort.
If you have or have ever had blood clots in your legs, lungs, or eyes, notify your doctor. thrombophilia (a condition in which blood clots easily); coronary artery disease (clogged blood vessels leading to the heart); cerebrovascular disease (clogging or weakening of blood vessels within or leading to the brain); stroke or mini-stroke; an irregular heartbeat; heart disease; a heart attack; chest pain; diabetes that has affected your circulation; headaches that occur in conjunction with other symptoms such as vision changes, weakness, and dizziness; high blood pressure
Yellowing of the skin or eyes during pregnancy or while using hormonal contraception (birth control pills, patches, rings, implants, or injections); unexplained abnormal vaginal bleeding; adrenal insufficiency (condition in which the body does not produce enough of certain natural substances required for important functions such as blood pressure); or kidney disease. Inform your doctor if you have recently undergone surgery or if you have been unable to move for any reason. If you have or have had any of these conditions, your doctor may advise you not to use specific types of oral contraceptives or not to use any form of oral contraceptive at all.
Also, tell your doctor if anyone in your family has had breast cancer, if you are overweight, and if you have or have ever had problems with your breasts, such as lumps, an abnormal mammogram (breast x-ray), or fibrocystic breast disease (swollen, tender breasts and/or breast lumps that are not cancer); high blood cholesterol or fats; diabetes; asthma; toxaemia (high blood pressure during pregnancy); heart attack; chest pain; seizures
If you are pregnant, want to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding, avoid using oral contraceptives. If you become pregnant while using oral contraception, contact your doctor right away.
You might be pregnant if you skip your periods while using oral contraception. Call your doctor if you miss one period while taking a 91-tablet package. If you use another type of package as directed and miss one period, you may continue to take your pills. However, if you do not take your medicines as prescribed and miss one period, or if you do take your medications as directed and miss two periods, you will be penalised.
Call your doctor and utilise another form of birth control until a pregnancy test is available. If you use a 28-tablet package containing solely active pills, you should not anticipate to have periods on a regular basis, making it difficult to know if you are pregnant. If you are using this form of oral contraceptive, contact your doctor and request a pregnancy test if you have pregnancy symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or breast tenderness, or if you fear you are pregnant.
If you need surgery, including dental surgery, inform your doctor or dentist that you are using oral contraception.
Oral contraceptives can produce a patchy darkening of the skin, especially on the face. If you have previously experienced changes in your skin colour while pregnant or while using oral contraceptives, you should avoid exposure to actual or artificial sunshine while using oral contraceptives. Wear safety gear, sunglasses, and sunscreen.
If you wear contact lenses, notify your doctor and chemist. Consult an eye doctor if you detect changes in your eyesight or ability to wear your contact lenses while using oral contraceptives.
What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.
What should I do if I forget to take a medication?
You may not be protected from pregnancy if you skip doses of your oral contraceptive. You may need to use a backup form of birth control for 7 to 9 days, or until your cycle is finished. If you miss one or more doses of an oral contraceptive, you must follow particular instructions. Read the manufacturer’s information for the patient that comes with your oral contraceptive carefully. Call your doctor or chemist if you have any queries. Continue taking your pills on a regular basis and using a backup form of birth control until your queries are resolved.
What are the potential Side effects of this medication?
Side effects of oral contraceptives are possible. Inform your doctor if any of the following symptoms are severe or persistent:
stomach cramps or bloating
gingivitis (swelling of the gum tissue)
increased or decreased appetite
weight gain or weight loss
brown or black skin patches
hair growth in unusual places
bleeding or spotting between menstrual periods
changes in menstrual flow
painful or missed periods
breast tenderness, enlargement, or discharge
swelling, redness, irritation, burning, or itching of the vagina
white vaginal discharge
Some side effects can be serious. The following symptoms are uncommon, but if you experience any of them, call your doctor immediately:
dizziness or faintness
weakness or numbness of an arm or leg
crushing chest pain or chest heaviness
coughing up blood
shortness of breath
partial or complete loss of vision
severe stomach pain
yellowing of the skin or eyes
loss of appetite
extreme tiredness, weakness, or lack of energy
swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs
depression, especially if you also have trouble sleeping, tiredness, loss of energy, or other mood changes
menstrual bleeding that is abnormally thick or lasts for more than seven days in a succession
Oral contraceptives may raise your risk of developing liver tumours. These tumours are not cancerous, but they can rupture and cause catastrophic internal bleeding. Oral contraceptives may also raise your risk of developing breast or liver cancer, as well as having a heart attack, stroke, or a major blood clot. Discuss the dangers of using oral contraceptives with your doctor.
Some studies suggest that women who use drosperinone-containing oral contraceptives (Beyaz, Gianvi, Loryna, Ocella, Safyral, Syeda, Yasmin, Yaz, and Zarah) are more likely to develop deep vein thrombosis (a serious or life-threatening condition in which blood clots form in the veins, usually in the legs, and can travel to the lungs) than women who do not. Other research, however, have not shown this elevated risk. Talk to your doctor before starting oral contraceptives about the danger of developing blood clots and which oral contraceptive or alternative type of birth control may be the best choice for you.
Other negative effects of oral contraceptives are possible. If you have any odd side effects while taking this medicine, contact your doctor.
If you have a significant adverse event, you or your doctor can report it to the FDA’s MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting programme online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).
What should I know about this medication’s storage and disposal?
Keep this medication in its original packaging, properly closed, and out of the reach of children. It should be stored at room temperature, away from excessive heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).
Unwanted drugs should be disposed of in a certain manner so that dogs, children, and other people cannot swallow them. You should not, however, dump this drug down the toilet. Instead, a medicine take-back programme is the best approach to dispose of your medicines. Learn about take-back programmes in your neighbourhood by speaking with your chemist or contacting your local garbage/recycling agency. If you do not have access, see the FDA’s Safe Disposal of Medicines website (http://goo.gl/c4Rm4p) for additional information.
It is critical to keep all medicine out of children’s sight and access since many containers (such as weekly pill minders and those for eye drops, creams, patches, and inhalers) are not child-resistant and are readily opened by young children. To keep small children safe from poisoning, always lock the safety caps and immediately store the medication in a safe location out of their sight and reach. http://www.upandaway.org
In the event of an emergency or an overdose
In the event of an overdose, dial 1-800-222-1222 for poison control. There is additional information accessible online at https://www.poisonhelp.org/help. If the person has collapsed, had a seizure, is having difficulty breathing, or cannot be woken, dial 911 immediately.
Symptoms of overdose may include:
What other information should I know?
Keep all of your doctor’s and laboratory appointments. Every year, you should receive a thorough medical checkup that includes blood pressure measures, breast and pelvic checks, and a Pap test. Examine your breasts according to your doctor’s instructions, and report any lumps right away.
Inform the laboratory professionals that you use oral contraceptives before having any laboratory testing.
If you stop using oral contraceptives and become pregnant, your doctor may advise you to use another type of birth control until you resume regular menstruation. It may take a long time for you to become pregnant after stopping oral contraceptives, especially if you have never had a baby or had irregular, infrequent, or absent menstrual cycles prior to starting oral contraceptives. It is possible, however, to become pregnant within days of discontinuing some oral contraceptives. If you wish to discontinue using oral contraceptives but do not want to become pregnant, you should start using another method of birth control as soon as you discontinue using oral contraceptives. Discuss any concerns you have with your doctor.
Oral contraceptives may reduce your body’s folate levels. Because folate is essential for the development of a healthy baby, you should see your doctor if you want to become pregnant shortly after discontinuing oral contraceptives. Your doctor may advise you to take a folate supplement or a folate-containing oral contraception (Beyaz, Safyral).
Do not give your medicine to anybody else. If you have any questions regarding refilling your prescription, ask your chemist.
It is critical that you keep a written record of all prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medications you are taking, as well as any vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should carry this list with you whenever you go to the doctor or are admitted to the hospital. It is also crucial to have this information on hand in case of an emergency.
Disclaimer: DrLinex has made every effort to ensure that all information is factually accurate, comprehensive and up-to-date. However, this article should not be used as a licensed health care professional’s choice of knowledge and expertise. You should always consult your doctor or other health care professional before taking any medication. The information given here is subject to change and it has not been used to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions or adverse effects. The lack of warning or other information for any drug does not indicate that the combination of medicine or medication is safe, effective or appropriate for all patients or all specific uses.