Birth Control Tablets-Uses-side effects-dosage-interactions

What is the purpose of this medication?

To avoid pregnancy, birth control tablets (oral contraceptives)
(birth control tablets) are utilised. Female sex hormones are oestrogen and
progestin. Oestrogen and progestin combinations function by inhibiting
ovulation (the release of eggs from the ovaries). They also alter the uterine
(womb) lining to prevent conception and alter the mucus at the cervix (uterine
entrance) to prevent sperm (male reproductive cells) from entering.  birth control tablets (oral contraceptives) are a very successful means of birth control, but they do not prevent the
transmission of HIV (the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
[AIDS]) and other sexually transmitted infections.

Some oral contraceptive brands are also used to treat acne in some people.  birth control tablets (oral contraceptives)
cure acne by lowering the levels of some naturally occurring chemicals that
might cause acne.

Some  birth control tablets (oral
contraceptives) (Beyaz, Yaz) are also used to treat premenstrual dysphoric
disorder (physical and emotional symptoms that occur before to menstruation
each month) in women who have opted to take an oral contraceptive to avoid


Birth Control Tablets-Uses-side effects-dosage-interactions


How should this medication be administered?

 birth control tablets (oral
contraceptives) are sold in packs of 21, 28, or 91 pills to be taken orally
once a day, every day, or almost every day in a normal cycle. Take  birth control tablets (oral contraceptives)
with meals or milk to avoid nausea. Every day, take your oral contraceptive at
the same time. Follow the instructions on your prescription label exactly, and
ask your doctor or chemist to explain any parts you don’t understand. Follow
the directions on your oral contraceptive precisely. Do not take more or less
of it, or take it more frequently or for a longer period of time than your
doctor has advised.


birth control tablets (oral contraceptives) are available in a variety of brands. Oral contraceptive brands
include somewhat different drugs or dosages, are administered in slightly
different methods, and have varying risks and benefits. Make sure you know
whatever brand of  birth control tablets
(oral contraceptives) you’re using and how to use it correctly. Request a copy
of the manufacturer’s information for the patient from your doctor or chemist,
and carefully study it.

Take 1 tablet everyday for 21 days and then none for 7 days if you have a
21-tablet packet. Then begin a fresh packet.

If you have a 28-tablet packet, take one tablet every day for 28 days in a
row, in the sequence given in your packet. Begin a new packet the day following
your 28th tablet. Most 28-tablet packages contain tablets of varying colours.
Many 28-tablet packs have particular colour tablets that carry varying levels
of oestrogen and progestin, although they may also contain an inert component
or a folate supplement.

Take 1 tablet everyday for 91 days if you have a 91-day tablet package. Your
package will include three trays of pills. Begin with the first tablet on the
first tray and continue taking one tablet each day in the sequence given on the
packet until all of the tablets on all of the trays have been consumed. The
final group of pills is a different colour. These pills might have an inert
component or a very low quantity of oestrogen. Begin your fresh packet the day
after your 91st pill.

When you should begin taking your oral contraceptive, your doctor will
advise you.  birth control tablets (oral
contraceptives) are often initiated on the first or fifth day of your menstrual
cycle, or on the first Sunday after or on which bleeding begins. Your doctor
will also advise you on whether you need to use another form of birth control
during the first 7 to 9 days of taking your oral contraceptive and will assist
you in selecting one. Follow these instructions exactly.

You may most likely suffer menstrual-like withdrawal bleeding when taking
the inactive pills or low dosage oestrogen tablets, or during the week you do
not take your oral contraceptive. If you take the sort of package that just
includes active pills, you will not have any planned bleeding, but you may have
unexpected bleeding and spotting, especially at the start of your treatment.
Even if you are still bleeding, start taking your fresh packet on time.

If you vomit or have diarrhoea while using an oral contraceptive, you may
need to use a backup form of birth control. Discuss this with your doctor
before starting your oral contraceptive so that you may prepare a backup method
of birth control in case it is required. If you vomit or have diarrhoea while
using an oral contraceptive, contact your doctor to determine how long you
should continue using the backup method.

If you have recently given birth, you should wait 4 weeks before starting
oral contraception. If you have had an abortion or miscarriage, see your doctor
about when you should start using oral contraception.

 birth control tablets (oral
contraceptives) are only effective if used on a regular basis. Continue to use  birth control tablets (oral contraceptives) on
a daily basis, even if you are spotting or bleeding, have an upset stomach, or
do not believe you are pregnant. Do not discontinue  birth control tablets (oral contraceptives)
without first consulting your doctor.

Other use for this medication

 birth control tablets (oral
contraceptives) are also occasionally used to treat heavy or irregular periods
and endometriosis (a condition in which the sort of tissue that lines the
uterus [womb] develops in other places of the body, causing discomfort, heavy
or irregular periods, and other symptoms). Discuss the risks of using this
medicine for your illness with your doctor.

This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or
pharmacist for more information.

What further measures should I take?
Before beginning oral contraception,

If you are allergic to oestrogen, progestin, or any other drug, notify your
doctor and chemist.
Inform your doctor and chemist about any prescription and over-the-counter
drugs, vitamins, or nutritional supplements you are taking. Be sure to mention
any of the following: acetaminophen (APAP, Tylenol); antibiotics such as
ampicillin (Principen), clarithromycin (Biaxin),erythromycin (E.E.S., E-Mycin,
Erythrocin), isoniazid (INH, Nydrazid), metronidazole (Flagyl),minocycline
(Dynacin, Minocin), rifabutin (Mycobutin), rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane),
tetracycline (Sumycin), and troleandomycin (TAO) (not available in the U.S.);
anticoagulants (‘blood thinners’) such as warfarin (Coumadin); antifungals such
as griseofulvin (Fulvicin, Grifulvin, Grisactin), fluconazole (Diflucan),
itraconazole (Sporanox), and ketoconazole (Nizoral); atorvastatin (Lipitor);
clofibrate (Atromid-S); cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune); bosentan (Tracleer);
cimetidine (Tagamet); danazol (Danocrine); delavirdine (Rescriptor); diltiazem
(Cardizem, Dilacor, Tiazac); fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, in Symbyax); HIV
protease inhibitors such as indinavir (Crixivan) and ritonavir (Norvir);
medications for seizures such as carbamazepine (Tegretol), felbamate
(Felbatol), lamotrigine (Lamictal), oxcarbazepine (Trileptal), phenobarbital (Luminal,
Solfoton), phenytoin (Dilantin), primidone (Mysoline), and topiramate
(Topamax); modafinil (Provigil); morphine (Kadian, MS Contin, MSIR, others);
nefazodone; rifampin (Rimactane, in Rifadin, in Rifater); oral steroids such as
dexamethasone (Decadron, Dexone), methylprednisolone (Medrol), prednisone
(Deltasone), and prednisolone (Prelone); temazepam (Restoril); theophylline
(Theobid, Theo-Dur); thyroid medication such as levothyroxine (Levothroid,
Levoxyl, Synthroid); verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan); vitamin C;
and zafirlukast (Accolate). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your
medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
if you are taking  birth control tablets
(oral contraceptives) that contain drosperinone (Beyaz, Gianvi, Loryna, Ocella,
Safyral, Syeda, Yasmin, Yaz, and Zarah) tell your doctor and pharmacist if you
are taking any of the medications listed above or any of the following:
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors such as benazepril (Lotensin),
enalapril (Vasotec), and lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril); angiotensin II
antagonists such as irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), and valsartan
(Diovan); aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such
as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn); diuretics (‘water
pills’) such as amiloride (Midamor), spironolactone (Aldactone), and
triamterene (Dyrenium); eplerenone (Inspra); heparin; or potassium supplements.
Before taking Beyaz or Safyral, also tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are
taking cholestyramine (Locholest, Prevalite, Questran), a folate supplement,
methotrexate (Trexall), pyrimethamine (Daraprim), sulfasalazine (Azulfidine),
or valproic acid (Depakene, Stavzor).

READ MORE: Oral-Contraceptives-Uses-side Estrogen and Progestin-Uses-side effects-dosage-interactions
Inform your doctor about any herbal supplements you are taking, particularly
St. John’s wort.

If you have or have ever had blood clots in your legs, lungs, or eyes,
notify your doctor. thrombophilia (a condition in which blood clots easily);
coronary artery disease (clogged blood vessels leading to the heart);
cerebrovascular disease (clogging or weakening of blood vessels within or
leading to the brain); stroke or mini-stroke; an irregular heartbeat; heart
disease; a heart attack; chest pain; diabetes that has affected your
circulation; headaches that occur in conjunction with other symptoms such as
vision changes, weakness, and dizziness; high blood pressure

Yellowing of the skin or eyes during pregnancy or while using hormonal
contraception (birth control pills, patches, rings, implants, or injections);
unexplained abnormal vaginal bleeding; adrenal insufficiency (condition in
which the body does not produce enough of certain natural substances required
for important functions such as blood pressure); or kidney disease. Inform your
doctor if you have recently undergone surgery or if you have been unable to
move for any reason. If you have or have had any of these conditions, your
doctor may advise you not to use specific types of  birth control tablets (oral contraceptives) or
not to use any form of oral contraceptive at all.

Also, tell your doctor if anyone in your family has had breast cancer, if
you are overweight, and if you have or have ever had problems with your
breasts, such as lumps, an abnormal mammogram (breast x-ray), or fibrocystic
breast disease (swollen, tender breasts and/or breast lumps that are not
cancer); high blood cholesterol or fats; diabetes; asthma; toxaemia (high blood
pressure during pregnancy); heart attack; chest pain; seizures
If you are pregnant, want to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding, avoid
using  birth control tablets (oral
contraceptives). If you become pregnant while using oral contraception, contact
your doctor right away.
You might be pregnant if you skip your periods while using oral contraception.
Call your doctor if you miss one period while taking a 91-tablet package. If
you use another type of package as directed and miss one period, you may
continue to take your pills. However, if you do not take your medicines as
prescribed and miss one period, or if you do take your medications as directed
and miss two periods, you will be penalised.

Call your doctor and utilise another form of birth control until a pregnancy
test is available. If you use a 28-tablet package containing solely active
pills, you should not anticipate to have periods on a regular basis, making it
difficult to know if you are pregnant. If you are using this form of oral
contraceptive, contact your doctor and request a pregnancy test if you have
pregnancy symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or breast tenderness, or if you
fear you are pregnant.
If you need surgery, including dental surgery, inform your doctor or dentist
that you are using oral contraception.
 birth control tablets (oral
contraceptives) can produce a patchy darkening of the skin, especially on the
face. If you have previously experienced changes in your skin colour while
pregnant or while using  birth control
tablets (oral contraceptives), you should avoid exposure to actual or
artificial sunshine while using  birth
control tablets (oral contraceptives). Wear safety gear, sunglasses, and
If you wear contact lenses, notify your doctor and chemist. Consult an eye
doctor if you detect changes in your eyesight or ability to wear your contact
lenses while using  birth control tablets
(oral contraceptives).

What special dietary instructions should I follow?

Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.


What should I do if I forget to take a medication?

You may not be protected from pregnancy if you skip doses of your oral
contraceptive. You may need to use a backup form of birth control for 7 to 9
days, or until your cycle is finished. If you miss one or more doses of an oral
contraceptive, you must follow particular instructions. Read the manufacturer’s
information for the patient that comes with your oral contraceptive carefully.
Call your doctor or chemist if you have any queries. Continue taking your pills
on a regular basis and using a backup form of birth control until your queries
are resolved.


What are the potential Side effects of this medication?

Side effects of  birth control tablets
(oral contraceptives) are possible. Inform your doctor if any of the following
symptoms are severe or persistent:
stomach cramps or bloating
gingivitis (swelling of the gum tissue)
increased or decreased appetite
weight gain or weight loss
brown or black skin patches
hair growth in unusual places
bleeding or spotting between menstrual periods
changes in menstrual flow
painful or missed periods
breast tenderness, enlargement, or discharge
swelling, redness, irritation, burning, or itching of the vagina
white vaginal discharge
Some side effects can be serious. The following symptoms are uncommon, but if
you experience any of them, call your doctor immediately:
severe headache
severe vomiting
speech problems
dizziness or faintness
weakness or numbness of an arm or leg
crushing chest pain or chest heaviness
coughing up blood
shortness of breath
leg pain
partial or complete loss of vision
double vision
bulging eyes
severe stomach pain
yellowing of the skin or eyes
loss of appetite
extreme tiredness, weakness, or lack of energy
dark-colored urine
light-colored stool
swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs
depression, especially if you also have trouble sleeping, tiredness, loss of
energy, or other mood changes
unusual bleeding
menstrual bleeding that is abnormally thick or lasts for more than seven days
in a succession
 birth control tablets (oral
contraceptives) may raise your risk of developing liver tumours. These tumours
are not cancerous, but they can rupture and cause catastrophic internal
bleeding.  birth control tablets (oral
contraceptives) may also raise your risk of developing breast or liver cancer,
as well as having a heart attack, stroke, or a major blood clot. Discuss the
dangers of using  birth control tablets
(oral contraceptives) with your doctor.

Some studies suggest that women who use drosperinone-containing  birth control tablets (oral contraceptives)
(Beyaz, Gianvi, Loryna, Ocella, Safyral, Syeda, Yasmin, Yaz, and Zarah) are
more likely to develop deep vein thrombosis (a serious or life-threatening
condition in which blood clots form in the veins, usually in the legs, and can
travel to the lungs) than women who do not. Other research, however, have not
shown this elevated risk. Talk to your doctor before starting  birth control tablets (oral contraceptives)
about the danger of developing blood clots and which oral contraceptive or
alternative type of birth control may be the best choice for you.

Other negative effects of  birth
control tablets (oral contraceptives) are possible. If you have any odd side
effects while taking this medicine, contact your doctor.

If you have a significant adverse event, you or your doctor can report it to
the FDA’s MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting programme online
( or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

What should I know about this medication’s storage and disposal?

Keep this medication in its original packaging, properly closed, and out of
the reach of children. It should be stored at room temperature, away from
excessive heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).

Unwanted drugs should be disposed of in a certain manner so that dogs,
children, and other people cannot swallow them. You should not, however, dump
this drug down the toilet. Instead, a medicine take-back programme is the best
approach to dispose of your medicines. Learn about take-back programmes in your
neighbourhood by speaking with your chemist or contacting your local
garbage/recycling agency. If you do not have access, see the FDA’s Safe Disposal
of Medicines website ( for additional information.

It is critical to keep all medicine out of children’s sight and access since
many containers (such as weekly pill minders and those for eye drops, creams,
patches, and inhalers) are not child-resistant and are readily opened by young
children. To keep small children safe from poisoning, always lock the safety
caps and immediately store the medication in a safe location out of their sight
and reach.


In the event of an emergency or an overdose

In the event of an overdose, dial 1-800-222-1222 for poison control. There
is additional information accessible online at
If the person has collapsed, had a seizure, is having difficulty breathing, or
cannot be woken, dial 911 immediately.

Symptoms of overdose may include:
vaginal bleeding


What other information should I know?

Keep all of your doctor’s and laboratory appointments. Every year, you
should receive a thorough medical checkup that includes blood pressure
measures, breast and pelvic checks, and a Pap test. Examine your breasts
according to your doctor’s instructions, and report any lumps right away.

Inform the laboratory professionals that you use  birth control tablets (oral contraceptives)
before having any laboratory testing.

If you stop using  birth control
tablets (oral contraceptives) and become pregnant, your doctor may advise you
to use another type of birth control until you resume regular menstruation. It
may take a long time for you to become pregnant after stopping  birth control tablets (oral contraceptives),
especially if you have never had a baby or had irregular, infrequent, or absent
menstrual cycles prior to starting  birth
control tablets (oral contraceptives). It is possible, however, to become
pregnant within days of discontinuing some  birth control tablets (oral contraceptives). If
you wish to discontinue using  birth
control tablets (oral contraceptives) but do not want to become pregnant, you
should start using another method of birth control as soon as you discontinue
using  birth control tablets (oral
contraceptives). Discuss any concerns you have with your doctor.

 birth control tablets (oral
contraceptives) may reduce your body’s folate levels. Because folate is
essential for the development of a healthy baby, you should see your doctor if
you want to become pregnant shortly after discontinuing  birth control tablets (oral contraceptives).
Your doctor may advise you to take a folate supplement or a folate-containing
oral contraception (Beyaz, Safyral).

Do not give your medicine to anybody else. If you have any questions
regarding refilling your prescription, ask your chemist.

It is critical that you keep a written record of all prescription and
nonprescription (over-the-counter) medications you are taking, as well as any
vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should carry this list
with you whenever you go to the doctor or are admitted to the hospital. It is also
crucial to have this information on hand in case of an emergency.

Disclaimer: DrLinex has made every effort to ensure
that all information is factually accurate, comprehensive and up-to-date.
However, this article should not be used as a licensed health care
professional’s choice of knowledge and expertise. You should always consult
your doctor or other health care professional before taking any medication. The
information given here is subject to change and it has not been used to cover
all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions,
allergic reactions or adverse effects. The lack of warning or other information
for any drug does not indicate that the combination of medicine or medication
is safe, effective or appropriate for all patients or all specific uses.


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