Hyperprolactinemia : Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment


Hyperprolactinemia is a state which has high levels of hormones called prolactin in the blood. Prolactin is produced by the pituitary gland and plays an important role in the development of breasts during pregnancy.

While Hyperprolactinemia is considered completely normal during pregnancy and breastfeeding, it can be a second time due to the use of the disease and the drug. Hyperprolactinemia can affect both men and women, resulting in irregular menstruation and direct problems, along with other things.

Causes for Hyperprolactinemia

Prolactin levels can be elevated for any reason. The formation of a benign tumor on the pituitary gland is one of the more common causes. This illegal development, known as prolactinoma, secretes excessive prolactin directly while reducing the level of other sex hormones.

Diseases that affect a part of the brain Hyperprolactinemia can also cause disease called hypothalamus. The hypothalamus acts as the link between the nervous system and the pituitary gland. Growth in prolactin levels can often be associated with tumors, trauma, or hypothalamus infections.

Other Causes may include:
•  Hypothyroidism  (low thyroid hormone levels)
•  Cirrhosis of the liver
•  Chronic kidney failure
•  Antidepressants (Anafranil, Norpramin)
•  Antipsychotics (Haldol, Zyprexa, Risperdal)
•  Antihypertensives ( Verelan, Calan, Covera-HS, Isoptin)
•  Antinauseals (Reglan, Primperan, Lexapram)
•  Acid H2 blockers (Tagamet, Zantac)
•  Estrogen

Symptoms of Hyperprolactinemia

Symptoms of hyperprolactinemia in women may vary. When pregnant or out of breastfeeding, they may include:

•  Infertility
•  Gallactoria (abnormal lactation)
•  Low or irregular period
•  Amenorrhea (disappearance of ovary period)
•  Loss of libido
•  Breast pain
•  Painful intercourse due to vaginal dryness

In men, symptoms usually include sexual inefficiency and / or pain associated with the formation of prolactinoma. Common symptoms and symptoms include:
•  Erectile dysfunction
•  Gynecomastia (development of breast tissue)
•  Lactation
•  Infertility
•  Loss of libido

Since men in hyperprolactinemia do not always appear with symptoms like menstrual symptoms, it is sometimes difficult to spot. In some cases, due to changes in pituitary tumor or vision, headache can be the first sign of the condition in both men and women.

Hyperprolactinemia Diagnosis

The diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia involves regular blood tests to investigate the level of prolactin. If the blood level is elevated, the doctor may want to repeat the test for at least eight hours after fasting. Normal prolactin levels for women are less than 500 MIU / L and less than 450 MIU / L for men

A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan can be ordered to damage the tissues of evidence of pituitary growth or nearby tissues. To evaluate the level of other hormones, blood tests may be useful in getting out of the symptoms due to any other possible causes.

Treatment of Hyperprolactinemia

The goal of treatment is to return prolactin to the normal level. There are several standard options to achieve this:

•  Medications Parlodel (bromocriptine) and Dostinex (cabergoline) are known to reduce the levels of prolactin and become effective in reducing pituitary tumors.
•  Surgery can sometimes be used to remove pituitary tumors if medicines are not working or are poor tolerant.
•  Radiation, while rarely used, can be suggested that medicines and surgery are not effective.
•  Hypothyroidism can be treated with synthetic thyroid hormones, which will bring down prolactin levels.
•  If high prolactin levels are due to therapeutic drugs, alternative medicines can be prescribed.

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